ŞEHİR e-arşiv

Ambassadors, spies, captives, merchants and travelers : Ottoman information networks in the East, 1736-1747

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dc.contributor.advisor Akarlı, Deniz
dc.contributor.author Özel, M. Nureddin
dc.date.accessioned 2019-04-02T08:28:37Z
dc.date.available 2019-04-02T08:28:37Z
dc.date.issued 2019-04-02
dc.date.submitted 2019-02-08
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11498/56115
dc.description.abstract This thesis sheds light on the Ottoman information networks in the East during the reign of Nadir Shah in Iran. It emphasizes singular cases of agencies who convey (and process) information, such as ambassadors, spies, captives, merchants, couriers, and travelers, but with due effort to depict the clear and implicit connections and links among them. The study is limited to the period when Nadir Shah reigned in Iran from 1736 to 1747, because the intensity of the developments and contacts in this interesting period provides an opportunity to investigate the sources and agents of information with due attention to detail. The study emphasizes Ottoman agents but it makes room for the voices, views and actions of Iranian and other actors as well. The thesis is based mainly on Ottoman sources but benefits from other sources as well. Its main focus is on Anatolia, Iraq, the Hedjaz, Iran, and India, and on individuals who were in contact with the Ottoman central and local officials. The research combines descriptive and analytical approaches. The descriptive side of the study aims to show how and when intelligence arrived in Istanbul. In the process, it introduces new or hitherto neglected Ottoman sources and agents as well. Münif’s ambassadorial report on Iran and Müteferrika’s Zeyl-i Tarih-i Seyyah are cases in point. Careful assessment of the available information helps correct some chronological and geographical mistakes in the current literature and draw attention to incoherent narratives in the primary sources. At the analytical level, this research points to the tensions and complexities of policy making. It points to friendly or hostile relations among certain Ottoman agents and how two political factions, led by Ahmed Paşa and Hacı Beşir Ağa, respectively, influenced the making of the Ottoman government’s Iran policy in the 1730s and 1740s. en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents CONTENTS: Abstract ................................................................................................................... iv Öz ............................................................................................................................ vi Dedication ............................................................................................................. viii Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. ix Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... xi List of Tables .......................................................................................................... xiv List of Diagrams ................................................................................................... xviii List of Maps ........................................................................................................... xix List of Figures .......................................................................................................... xx Abbreviations......................................................................................................... xxi Notes on Dates and Transliteration ....................................................................... xxv CHAPTERS 1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1 1.1. Significance of Ottoman-Iran Relations during the Reign of Nadir Shah ..................... 4 1.2. Significance of Information Network and Agencies ................................................... 5 1.3. The Framework of the Study ..................................................................................... 6 1.4. An Overview of Ottoman-Iranian Relations in 1736-1747.......................................... 8 2. Review on Sources, Agents and Literature.......................................................... 21 2.1. Locating the Sources ................................................................................................21 2.2. Classifying the Agents ..............................................................................................28 2.2.1. Official Missions and Their Hosts .......................................................................29 2.2.2. Spies and Captives ............................................................................................35 2.2.3. Travelers ...........................................................................................................36 2.2.4. Merchants ........................................................................................................38 2.2.5. Couriers ............................................................................................................38 2.3. A Review of Literature .............................................................................................39 2.3.1. Chronological Mistakes .....................................................................................41 2.3.2. Mistakes in Names and Location .......................................................................48 2.3.3. The Kurdan Treaty of 1746 ................................................................................55 3. Factions of Ahmed Paşa and Hacı Beşir Ağa in Making Ottoman Foreign Policy of Iran ........................................................................................................................ 62 3.1. The Faction of Ahmed Paşa ......................................................................................67 3.1.1. Ahmed Paşa ......................................................................................................67 3.1.2. Other Members ................................................................................................86 3.2. The Faction of Hacı Beşir Ağa ...................................................................................94 3.2.1. Hacı Beşir Ağa ...................................................................................................94 3.2.2. Other Members ................................................................................................99 4. Official Source of Information: Official Missions ................................................104 4.1. Journeys of the Official Missions ............................................................................113 4.2. Durations of Official Missions ................................................................................128 4.3. Official Correspondence ........................................................................................136 5. Unofficial Sources of Information: Spies, Captives, Merchants, Couriers, and Travelers ...............................................................................................................151 5.1. Spies ......................................................................................................................154 5.1.1. Karakulak Ali Bey ............................................................................................154 5.1.2. Two Ottoman Spies in Tabriz ...........................................................................156 5.1.3. A Spy from Yerevan.........................................................................................157 5.1.4. Another Ottoman Spy in Tabriz .......................................................................160 5.1.5. Molla Veli .......................................................................................................161 5.1.6. Two Documents about Payment to Ottoman Spies .........................................162 5.1.7. Iranian Spies in the Ottoman Empire ...............................................................163 5.2. Captives.................................................................................................................164 5.2.1. Ottoman Captives in Iran ................................................................................164 5.2.1.1. Feyzullah Bey ..........................................................................................165 5.2.1.2. Ahmed Ağa .............................................................................................166 5.2.1.3. Camuş Hasan Ağa ....................................................................................167 5.2.2. Uzbek Fugitives from Nadir’s Army .................................................................168 5.3. Travelers ...............................................................................................................170 5.3.1. Jean Otter .......................................................................................................171 5.3.2. Tanburi Küçük Arutin Efendi ............................................................................175 5.3.3. Khwaja Abd-ul Karim Kashmiri ........................................................................177 5.4. Couriers .................................................................................................................179 5.5. Nadir Shah’s Indian Campaign as a Case Study .......................................................184 5.5.1. The First News on the Campaign .....................................................................187 5.5.2. A Detailed Report on the Campaign ................................................................191 5.5.3. Müteferrika’s Second Work on Iran: Zeyl-i Tarih-i Seyyah ................................194 6. Conclusion ........................................................................................................200 Bibliography ..........................................................................................................205 Appendices A. Routes and Distances ........................................................................................242 A.1. Sources and Assumptions ......................................................................................242 A.2. The Return Journeys of Münif Mustafa Efendi and Nazif Mustafa Efendi ...............245 A.3. The Distances in the Sources .................................................................................247 A.4. The Routes ............................................................................................................254 B. A New Ottoman Ambassadorial Report on Iran: Münif Mustafa Efendi’s İran Sefaretnamesi .......................................................................................................264 B.1. Münif Mustafa Efendi: An Ottoman Poet and Ambassador ....................................264 B.2. The Lists of Münif’s Works in Manuscript Libraries ................................................268 B.3. Münif Mustafa Efendi’s İran Sefaretnamesi ...........................................................273 B.4. Nazif Mustafa Efendi’s Report on Münif’s Mission in 1742 .....................................282 C. Selected Turkish Poems on Nadir Shah..............................................................286 C.1. Poems on Mahmud I .............................................................................................288 C.2. Poems on the Ottoman Elites ................................................................................289 C.3. Poems on the Fifth Madhhab, Baghdad and the Diplomatic Interactions ...............292 C.4. Poems on Nadir Shah and His Death ......................................................................296 D. Selected Paintings of Certain Actors .................................................................300 en_US
dc.language.iso eng en_US
dc.rights info:eu-repo/semantics/embargoedAccess en_US
dc.subject Turkey--Foreign Relations--Iran en_US
dc.subject Iran--Foreign Relations--Turkey en_US
dc.subject Ambassadors--Iran en_US
dc.subject Spies en_US
dc.subject Türkiye--Dış İlişkiler--İran en_US
dc.subject İran--Dış İlişkiler--Türkiye en_US
dc.subject Elçiler--İran en_US
dc.subject Casuslar en_US
dc.title Ambassadors, spies, captives, merchants and travelers : Ottoman information networks in the East, 1736-1747 en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.contributor.department İstanbul Şehir University. Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences. History. en_US


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